Российская наука и мир (дайджест) - Октябрь 2007 г. (часть 1)
Дайджест за другие годы
2007 г.
Российская наука и мир
(по материалам зарубежной электронной прессы)

январь февраль март апрель май июнь июль август сентябрь октябрь ноябрь декабрь

    The Moscow Times / Tuesday, September 25, 2007. Issue 3750. Page 11.
    When Secrets Damage Science and a Country

    На пленарном заседании Общественной палаты, посвященном науке и образованию, академик Евгений Велихов призвал изменить закон о государственной тайне, тормозящий, по его словам, развитие науки. В России сложилась ситуация, когда настоящие секреты защищены плохо. При этом ученые могут оказаться за решеткой, когда якобы разглашают научные данные. В результате многие институты и отдельные ученые отказываются от сотрудничества с зарубежными коллегами, опасаясь обвинений в шпионаже, что отнюдь не способствует научному развитию.

Countries interested in scientific and technological development face the dilemma of how to keep their military and technical secrets under wraps without blocking the free exchange of ideas. Complicated measures are needed to balance these interests, but the most important measure in any country is its law on state secrets.
Public Chamber head Yevgeny Velikhov said Saturday that Russia's legislation on state secrets fails to ensure that classified military and technological information remains confidential but rather complicates the work of law enforcement officials charged with investigating leaks.
"We have failed to keep real state secrets, and this is why we have scientists in jail. I'm sure that some of them were imprisoned for doing nothing wrong, although the cases were legally grounded," he said at a meeting of the chamber.
Imperfections in the law make it difficult for scientists to work. Many have been charged with passing state secrets in recent years, including Valentin Danilov, Igor Sutyagin and the Minin brothers.
As a result, fewer scientists are working with their foreign counterparts, and many research institutes have stopped cooperating with foreign institutes altogether to avoid being caught up in espionage investigations.
The decline in scientific cooperation means Russia is lagging behind other developed countries.
The imperfect law means the security services are looking everywhere for leaks, not just among military or state officials. And the security services have found an easy target - Russian scientists who receive foreign grants or communicate with foreign colleagues.
One of the reasons behind the crackdown on scientists is Article 5 of the state secrets law, which defines state secrets in the scientific arena. It reads: "A state secret may be scientific or experimental in nature, as well as significant technologies in the defense or economic spheres that may affect the security of the Russian Federation."
Another reason scientists are facing trouble is the fact that the law allows both prosecutors and defense lawyers to call in experts to determine whether a state secret has been exposed, without taking into consideration their area of competency.
Problems are not limited to military and technological secrets. Government agencies also stamp documents with "classified" or "for office use only." Agencies can issue orders and instructions that violate civil rights and classify them as secret.
This means citizens are left without legal recourse and no documents to present in court - since they are all classified.

© Copyright 2006. The Moscow Times. All rights reserved.

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    Web Services Journal - Montvale, NJ, USA / Sep. 26, 2007
    W2 Energy Inc. to Contract N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry to Develop New Catalyst

    Производитель возобновляемых видов энергии корпорация W2 Energy заключила контракт с Институтом органической химии им. Н.Д.Зелинского РАН на разработку формулы катализатора для эффективного преобразования азотообогащенного синтетического газа в углеводородное топливо.

NEW YORK, NY - (MARKET WIRE) - 09/26/07 - W2 Energy Inc., a developer of green energy, is pleased to announce it will contract the N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry to develop a catalyst formula, which provides effective conversion of nitrogen-rich syn-gas into fuel-range hydrocarbons.
Mr. Michael McLaren states, "To partner with such a prestigious organization such as N.D. Zelinsky Institute in the field of organic chemistry further enhances W2 Energy's credibility of becoming a world leader in the field of alternative hydrocarbon production. It has been my goal throughout this project to be able to produce a pure hydrocarbon stream in the simplest manner possible thus reducing both capital and operational costs of manufacturing these hydrocarbons using waste streams and bio-feedstock. The new catalyst will enable W2 Energy to produce high quality hydrocarbon streams from syn-gas that has been derived using atmosphere rather than oxygen as the reaction gas in the biomass plasma reactor (BPR). The catalyst will also be able to produce a superior hydrocarbon stream from a hydrogen-poor syn-gas typically in the 1H2:1CO ratio which will eliminate the need for added components in our system such as a water/gas shift reactor." W2 Energy currently has approximately US$1.7B in production requests for their alternative hydrocarbon product.
About W2 Energy Inc.
W2 Energy Inc. is a growing, publicly traded company that develops renewable energy technologies and applies it to new generation power systems. Specifically, W2 Energy Inc.'s biomass-to-energy plants utilize state-of-the-art technologies to produce green energy - both fuel (sulfur free diesel) and electricity - at the most efficient cost in capital investment and production per/barrel, per/Megawatt.
The W2 Energy GAT reactor breaks down biomass or coal using the chemical energy stored in the biomass itself, the plasma acts as a high temperature catalyst. Unlike typical plasma reactors that utilize convection of the intense heat produced by the plasma, our GAT reactor can amazingly produce enough syn-gas (H2, CO) to feed a 10,000 barrel-per-day synthetic diesel plant and 100 Megawatt steam turbine with a mere 4 MW input. Since our unique process works in this manner most if not at all the CO2 produced by the process is converted into Carbon suboxides in the form of humic acid and is mixed within the ash to produce high-grade organic fertilizer. Therefore the process is completely C02 neutral even using coal or peat as base fuel.
About N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry.
The Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences was founded on February 23, 1934, as result of a merge of the laboratories, which represented leading Russian scientific schools and were headed by Professors A.E. Favorsky, N.D. Zelinsky, V.N. Ipatev and A.E. Chichibabin. Apart from these research teams, laboratories of Professors N.Ya. Demyanov, M.A. Ilinsky and N.M. Kizhner, and a number of scientists working under supervision of Professor Pavel P. Shorygin joined the Institute at the earlier stage of its existence.
N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry (ZIOC) ranks among the leaders of Russian science in the field of organic and bioorganic chemistry and organic catalysis. The following key areas of basic research are being successfully developed at the Institute:

- in-depth study of the chemical bond nature, reactivity of organic and organoelement compounds, mechanisms and intermediates of chemical reactions;
- development of new methods and routes of organic and organoelement synthesis;
- research in chemistry of biologically active and natural compounds;
- elucidation of general regularities of organic catalysis and mechanisms of catalytic reactions;
- development of new methods of catalytic synthesis.
Since the late 1980s, the Institute has initiated researches in the area of mathematical chemistry and computer synthesis based on advanced information technologies.
At every stage of its history, ZIOC has been focusing on combining basic research activities with a search of practical solutions being top priority for this country. During World War II its scientists greatly contributed to improving the quality of aviation gasolines and preparing critical drugs urgently needed in military hospitals. Of other activities, noteworthy is the preparation of the carbinol adhesive (Nazarovs adhesive) and its use for the maintenance of armored vehicles. After the War, a lot of researches were aimed at the country's defense capacity build-up.
ZIOC was involved in the implementation of the Food and Energy Programs, a number of Federal Target Programs aiming at important S&T problems, such as a tie-up of chemistry and agriculture, environmental protection and design of new high performance catalysts, pharmaceuticals, scientific research devices, etc. (more than 100 various projects).
Since the 1990s, ZIOC RAS has been performing research in topical and priority areas, including those initiated by and funded through governmental S&T programs such as the Federal Target Program "Research and Development within the Priority Science and Technology Areas", Federal Target Program "Integration of Science and Higher Education in Russia", and under other R&D programs along with basic research programs of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RAS Division of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Moscow Program of Science and Technology Development, and so on.
In addition, the Institute participates in joint projects with scientists from Western Europe and the USA in the framework of the EU scientific programs (INTAS, Copernicus), American Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) established for the independent states of the former USSR, Conversion Program of the International Science and Engineering Center, and other initiatives of different foundations and organizations.
A number of the ZIOC teams and individual scientists are winners of the competition-based selection of research programs and individual projects for funding in the framework of the Program for Governmental Support to RF Leading Scientific Schools (in 2004 - eight research teams), competitions of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (in 2004 - forty two projects), and competitions for grants held by international scientific foundations, programs and organizations (altogether about 20 grants annually).
Safe Harbor for Forward-Looking Statements: Except for historical information contained herein, statements are forward-looking statements that are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, which may cause the company's actual results in the future periods to differ materially from forecasted projections. These risks and uncertainties include, among other things, energy market volatility, product demand, market competition, and risk inherent to the company's research and development operations.
Copyright © 2007 SYS-CON Media. All Rights Reserved.

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    AlphaGalileo / 28 September 2007
    Traces of the deluge

    Во времена оледенений "всемирные потопы" в Евразии случались регулярно. С севера ледник служил естественной дамбой для сибирских рек, что приводило к формированию огромных озер. В горах ледники формировали подпрудные бассейны, которые периодически прорывались и затапливали обширные территории.
    Исследователи из Иркутского государственного университета, Института земной коры СО РАН и Института геохимии им. А.П.Виноградова СО РАН обнаружили следы катастрофического наводнения в Забайкалье. Рельеф Цасучейской впадины в Читинской области свидетельствует о том, что когда-то здесь прошел мощный поток воды. Ученые считают, что это был прорыв гигантского бассейна, возможно, связанного с некогда существовавшим Селенгинским озером, занимавшим значительную часть суши к востоку от Байкала.

Apparently, disasters resembling the biblical Deluge often happened in Eurasia when glaciers occupied more space than they do now. In the north, the glacier served as a natural dam for Siberian rivers, and gigantic lakes were formed in northern Asia. In the mountains, glaciers formed dammed basins, which periodically burst and flooded vast territories. Huge water and mud flows rushed out at the speed of 20 meters per second.
Researchers of the Irkutsk State University and Institutes of the Earth's Crust and Geochemistry (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) have recently discovered traces of a catastrophic hydrobreaking in the middle flow of the Onon river, in Tchasuchey deep (Transbaikalia). They made the discovery having investigated the relief of this area with the help of GoogleEarth, so anyone can look at evidence of the biblical-scale flood by typing "barun torey" (Barun Torey lake in the Chita Region) in the search line and by scrutinizing the locality stretching towards the north-west of the water body approximately through to Tchasuchey.
The point is in the relief of Tchasuchey deep - hills, mounds and ridges, shallow gullies and lakes in the shallow gullies are oriented from the north-west to south-east in that region. Linearly oriented ridge and shallow gullies system is the sign that once a water flow used to rush here. At the northern boundary of the deep, the lakes are big, but within its boundaries they are shallow. The majority of the lakes are oval and round, but few having an elongated shape are pulled out strictly in the direction from the north-west towards the south-east.
Geologists have been debating so far about the origin of ridges and mounds oriented in one direction - if they are of aeolian origin (or wind origin, when the wind sweeps dunes together), or of fluvial origin - when the same is done by running water. The Irkutsk researchers believe that a catastrophic debacle of a gigantic pond took place there, probably this is connected with Selengin Lake that existed in former times and occupied a major part of mainland towards the east of Baikal. The fact that the shallow gully zones alternate with the mound zones is to the credit of the above hypothesis. Hills and ridges prevail in the middle part of Tchasuchey deep, but in the north and in the south, near Barun Torey Lake, shallow gullies and deeps are predominant.
Such geological structures continue up to Harbin and Changchun in China, slightly "turning" to the north. Judging by the relief in the region of China, it is apparent that the flow broke down into several smaller ones.
It is interesting to note that positive forms of the relief are similar to "baire hillocks" in the Caspian Sea region. The same parallel chains of hills consisting of sand and clay stretch in latitudinal direction along Manych shallow gully, on the spot of hypothetical strait between the Caspian and the Black Sea. They were first described by C. Baire and are called after him. Similar formations also exist in Western Siberia where water inrush went from the east to the west. So, it means that "the Deluges" were not infrequent during the glaciation era.

© AlphaGalileo Foundation 2003.

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    AgoraVox - France / lundi 1er octobre 2007
    1957, l'année du Spoutnik
    Il y a cinquante ans, le 4 octobre 1957, l'URSS lançait Spoutnik 1 et l'humanité entrait dans l'âge de l'espace

    50 лет назад, 4 октября 2007 года СССР осуществил запуск первого в мире искусственного спутника Земли.

À cette époque, les ingénieurs de Renault planchaient sur leur réplique high-tech à la monstrueuse 2CV de Citroën : la 4L. Les tractions régnaient en maîtres sur les routes...
À Bordeaux, chez Dassault, on fabriquait le nec plus ultra de la science aéronautique : le Mirage III.
Les ordinateurs fonctionnaient avec des tubes à vide, aucun ne dépassait la puissance de calcul d'une montre à quartz actuelle. Réseau ? Internet ? Les premiers modems expérimentaux doivent bien grésiller quelque part, dans les laboratoires américains.
Les premiers postes de télévision commencent à se généraliser dans les foyers... américains. Sur un écran bombé de taille minuscule s'agitent de petites figurines en noir et blanc sur un son monophonique et nasillard. En France, il y avait la radio, en modulation d'amplitude, of course. Pour les mélomanes, il y avait la grande nouveauté, le 45 tours.
Tirée de Baikonour, une fusée Semiorka place en orbite son Spoutnik, le premier satellite artificiel. Sa fonction : faire bip. Pour aller en vacances, le Français moyen prenait le train. Comptez douze heures de teuf teuf pour un Paris-Nice. Le Français un peu plus que moyen pouvait prendre sa 2CV, mais par la nationale, ce n'était pas plus rapide, l'autoroute Paris-Marseille date de 1970. Et les avions, ben, ils étaient à hélice, le Boeing 707 ne débarquera qu'en 1958.
C'était il y a cinquante ans. Quand on y pense, c'est quasiment une éternité. Technologiquement parlant, nous n'avons plus rien à voir avec ces curieux pithécantropes qui étaient nos parents, nos grands-parents. Tout ça a disparu. La lampe à vide l'a rejoint dans les années 60, on ne croise plus guère de 2CV, ni de 4L, les postes TV de l'époque seraient bien incapables d'accepter un adaptateur TNT, avec le TGV, Lyon est devenu une banlieue de Paris, et l'armée de l'Air remplace ses Mirages 2000 (pas III) par des Rafales.
Et la fusée Semiorka ? Oh, elle a rejoint le musée poussiéreux des gloires de l'aéronautique, que quelques vieillards nostalgiques visitent, la larme à l'oeil...
Eh ? Quoi ? Ça vole encore ces vieilleries ?
Eh oui, ça vole encore ces vieilleries. La fusée R7, à l'origine conçue dans le noble but de balancer des bombes atomiques sur la tronche des Américains, s'est révélée n'être qu'un piètre missile stratégique, mais a envoyé en orbite Laïka, Gagarine et tous les cosmonautes russes (et pas mal d'autres nationalités), ainsi qu'une quantité prodigieuse de satellites civils ou militaires. Comme c'est cette fusée qui lance les vaisseaux Soyouz, on l'appelle "la fusée Soyouz". Elle a un peu changé depuis 1957, évidemment. On a rajouté des étages supérieurs plus ou moins puissants selon ce que l'on veut faire. On a raboté les moteurs du premier étage pour les rendre (un peu) plus performants. On a rajouté de l'électronique moderne pour contrôler le tout. Mais dans l'ensemble, c'est bien la même lessiveuse.
Un jour, bien sûr, la Semiorka prendra sa retraite. Un jour, la dernière fusée Soyouz larguera ses boosters avant de rejoindre l'espace. Mais pour l'instant, elle n'a pas l'air pressée d'en prendre le chemin.
D'une part parce qu'après 2010, les navettes spatiales partiront orner les musées américains, et que leur remplaçant, le vaisseau Orion, ne sera pas opérationnel avant 2014 (comptez plutôt 2016). Entre temps, l'humanité en général, et l'humanité américaine en particulier, n'aura plus d'autre solution pour aller en orbite que de prendre le bon vieux Soyouz (ou de demander aux Chinois). D'autre part, j'aimerais attirer votre attention sur le petit village de Sinnamary, pas loin de Kourou, en Guyane. À l'heure où j'écris ces lignes, quelque part, dans la jungle, on creuse un grand trou, on coule du béton, on monte des installations biscornues. C'est un nouveau pas de tir. Et pour quelle fusée ? Eh oui, d'ici 2008, ce vénérable chalumeau soviétique conçu sous Staline s'élèvera glorieusement dans le ciel de l'Amérique du Sud.
Les Semiorka sont assemblées par de vieux ingénieurs qui n'ont fait que ça de toute leur vie. Elles sont fabriquées à la chaîne dans les mêmes usines depuis Brejnev. Le carburant n'a rien d'exotique, c'est du kérozène/oxygène liquide. Il n'y a rien qui coûte bien cher dans ces fusées. Les Russes en ont tiré plus de 1600, à comparer avec la centaine de vols de navettes ou la trentaine d'Ariane V. Tous les problèmes qui pouvaient se poser ont été résolus depuis des lustres. C'est la fusée la plus fiable du monde.
On a souvent le préjugé que la science spatiale est le théâtre de la technologie la plus avancée. L'exemple de la fusée Soyouz nous apprend que ce n'est pas nécessairement le cas. En fait, les progrès sont rares en matière de fusée, quand il y en a. Les fusées ARES I et ARES V, que les Américains développent actuellement pour remplacer la navette spatiale, n'ont aucun élément neuf, ils ne font que réutiliser de vieux moteurs mis au point pour le programme Apollo, il y a quarante ans, et des éléments de navette vieux de trente ans. Si tout va bien, ces fusées serviront à la NASA jusqu'aux années 2050, la technologie qui les enverra dans l'espace aura alors près d'un siècle. On ignore ce qu'il en sera de l'industrie spatiale russe, mais le fait est qu'aucun saut technologique n'est en vue en matière de propulsion spatiale.
Donc, les recettes vieilles d'un demi-siècle sont toujours pertinentes, et on n'a pas réussi à faire beaucoup mieux depuis. Le jour où l'humanité lancera la dernière Semiorka, il n'est pas exclu que nous soyons tous morts depuis longtemps.

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    Monsters and Critics.com - Glasgow, UK / Oct 1, 2007
    Russia wants to revive space dominance of Sputnik era

    Искусственные спутники Земли - история и современность.

Moscow - The shock in the West was deep when the bleeping from Sputnik 1 was able to be picked up from space by simple radios worldwide 50 years ago.
The first man-made satellite that had been blasted into space from the then Soviet missile complex in Baikonur, Kazakhstan marked October 4, 1957 as not only the beginning of the Space Age, but also the starting shot in the race between the US and the USSR for space - and the Soviets were ahead by a nose.
The United States also feared that Moscow could use its versatile missiles to launch nuclear weapons at it.
Now after a long dry spell, Russia is once again aiming to head back into space with its own moon station and Mars mission.
Sputnik, 58 centimetres in diameter, and weighing around 84 kilograms, ushered in a new era of scientific and technical developments such as satellite communications.
Then-Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev recognized the propaganda value of space, with the Russians launching Sputnik-2 on November 3, 1957 to mark the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution. The satellite weighed 500 kilogrammes and was also "manned" - by a dog named Laika.
Fifty years after her death as the first living being in space, there is now a memorial in her honour.
In early 1958, the US finally managed to put a satellite, Explorer 1, into orbit. But Krushchev was able to scoff at what he called Washington's "grapefruit" since Explorer 1 was a mere 13.7 kilos and 16.2 centimetres in diameter.
Just in time for the celebration, Russia's space industry is demonstrating itself confident after the chaos and underfinancing of the 1990s.
In 20 years, they are planning a station on the moon and in 30 years a manned flight to Mars, the head the Russian space agency Roskosmos, Anatoly Perminov, says.
His programme also sees the building of a new space platform in the Far East and a purely Russian space station.
"That will be something completely different from the ISS (International Space Station)", Perminov says. A new transport system and space shuttle are also in the offing, he says.
Russia wants to couple this with old successes. By 2011 the Russian satellite navigation system Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) is to overtake the US Global Positioning System (GPS) system, the Kremlin daily Rossiyskaya Gazeta wrote, citing Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov.
According to the report, the system is no less important than the possession of nuclear weapons or energy resources. "One has only put on a full head of steam," Ivanov urged his researchers.
In response, scientists are concerned with the increasing volume of so-called space junk in the earth's orbit.
According to Yuri Zaitsev of the Institute of Space Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, space flight could even become "impossible in a while," because too many satellites and projectiles are in the flight paths.
Millions of individual parts, the remains of carrier rockets, exploded space probes and everyday waste from astronauts and cosmonauts are now floating around the earth.
Collisions and injuries of personnel are possible as many of these space particles are moving faster than gunshots, Zaitsev says.
Fifty years after the start of Sputnik, hundreds of satellites are revolving round the earth at heights of between 80 kilometres and 36,000 kilometres.
They are delivering meteorological data on weather-forecasting and register changes on earth, from volcanic eruptions to hurricanes and the destruction of the rain forests.
And they are measuring the melting of the polar ice caps due to climate change.
The scientific haul of the first Sputnik mission led by Sergei Korolyov was slight in comparison.
The body of that craft with three antennae delivered data over the thickness of the atmosphere and temperature to a station on the ground.
With a speed in space of 8,000 metres per second, the satellite circled the globe at a distance of 939 kilometres until the chemical batteries were used up and the glittering aluminium ball burnt up in the earth's atmosphere on January 4, 1958.

© 2007 dpa - Deutsche Presse-Agentur.

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    Journal du CNRS - Paris, France / N 213, Octobre 2007
    Vent de nouveauté sur la Sibérie
    • Julie Coquart

    Европейская исследовательская группа Yak-Aerosib (Россия, Франция, Германия) созданная в 2003 году, занимается изучением углеродного обмена в Сибири. Сибирский регион представляет в этом плане огромный интерес, ведь леса и почва Сибири аккумулируют до ¼ мирового запаса углерода.

Quels mécanismes influencent les échanges de carbone en Sibérie, au sein du plus grand système forestier d'Eurasie ? Comment les divers gaz, notamment les polluants, sont-ils transportés dans cette région du monde ? C'est pour répondre à ces questions d'une importance cruciale pour l'étude du changement climatique à l'échelle de la planète, qu'a été créé en 2003 le groupement de recherche européen (GDRE) Yak-Aerosib, dont le renouvellement pour quatre ans vient d'avoir lieu. Institué entre la France et la Russie, puis rejoint par l'Allemagne en 2004, le GDRE a déjà organisé trois campagnes d'étude en 2006 et 2007.
À bord d'un avion scientifique russe, un Antonov 30, des instruments développés par les laboratoires français participants permettent, seconde après seconde, d'analyser les échantillons d'air prélevés à l'extérieur.
Car dans la subtile mécanique des échanges de gaz, notamment de dioxyde de carbone (CO2), sur le globe terrestre, la forêt sibérienne est un rouage important. "Elle stocke 74 milliards de tonnes de carbone dans la végétation et 249 milliards dans les sols, soit respectivement 1/5 et 1/3 de la quantité globale, rappelle Jean-Daniel Paris, du Laboratoire des sciences du climat et de l'environnement (LSCE), dont la thèse porte sur les flux de carbone et le transport des polluants en Sibérie. Végétation et sol constituent des réservoirs naturels de gaz à effet de serre et sont extrêmement vulnérables aux variations climatiques. Il existe bien un réseau global de stations de mesure au sol pour les surveiller, mais il n'est pas suffisamment dense en Sibérie. Il était donc capital d'étudier les échanges de carbone et le transport des divers gaz polluants vers et depuis la région." Selon les mesures effectuées lors des différentes campagnes, les concentrations de CO2 en Sibérie présentent une grande variabilité dans le temps et dans l'espace. "C'est très important de le savoir, car pour les futures missions spatiales qui s'intéresseront à la question, on pensait se baser sur une supposée homogénéité", observe Jean-Daniel Paris. Par ailleurs, les scientifiques ont pu constater que l'air de la Sibérie était relativement plus pollué qu'on ne s'y attendait. Philippe Ciais, chercheur au LSCE et instigateur du GDRE pour la France, explique : "Les campagnes effectuées en hiver, saison pendant laquelle l'activité des plantes est plus lente, ont montré que l'atmosphère sibérienne est très peu mélangée et que la région reçoit des polluants émis par l'Europe et la Chine." La Chine est d'ailleurs l'une des sources importantes de pollution de la région, comme le montrent les techniques de modélisation inverse qui permettent, à partir des quantités de gaz mesurées en Sibérie, de remonter à leur source.
Connaître l'état de l'atmosphère sibérienne est également important au niveau mondial puisqu'elle affecte la qualité de l'air dans d'autres régions du monde, notamment l'Arctique. Ainsi, les feux de forêt sibériens peuvent émettre des aérosols qui participent au "arctic haze", cette légère brume qui recouvre l'Arctique au printemps. C'est ainsi qu'en 2008, le GDRE débordera de sa stricte observation de la forêt sibérienne, en mettant son Antonov 30 à disposition d'un grand programme international d'étude de la troposphère arctique, Polarcat.

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    PhysOrg.com - Evergreen, VA, USA / October 03, 2007
    NASA Spacecraft to Carry Russian Science Instruments

    Администратор NASA Майкл Гриффин и глава РКА Анатолий Перминов подписали соглашение о сотрудничестве в ходе беспилотных миссий, которые будут искать запасы воды под поверхностью Луны и Марса. Соглашение предусматривает размещение российских приборов на борту зондов NASA, которые отправятся к Луне и Марсу. Первый российский прибор, так называемый LEND, будет установлен на беспилотный зонд NASA - Орбитальный аппарат лунной разведки (LRO). Он будет запущен в октябре 2008 года для поисков воды, которая может иметься под поверхностью Луны на полюсах.

NASA and the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos have agreed to fly two Russian scientific instruments on NASA spacecraft that will conduct unprecedented robotic missions to the moon and Mars.
NASA Administrator Michael Griffin and Roscosmos head Anatoly Perminov signed agreements in Moscow on Oct. 3 to add the instruments to two future missions: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, scheduled to launch in October 2008, and the Mars Science Laboratory, an advanced robotic rover scheduled to launch in 2009.
Russia's Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will search for evidence of water ice and help understand astronauts' exposure to radiation during future trips to the moon. The instrument will map concentrations of hydrogen that may be found on and just beneath the lunar surface.
Roscosmos' Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory will measure hydrogen to analyze neutrons interacting with the Martian surface. The principal investigator for both instruments is Igor Mitrofanov of the Institute for Space Research of the Russian Academy of Science.
"Russia's contribution to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Science Laboratory missions continues a rich and long-standing tradition of cooperation between NASA and Russia for scientific research in space," Griffin said. "The Institute for Space Research has a track record of delivering excellent instrumentation, and we are delighted to have international participation on these missions to explore the moon and send a robotic laboratory to Mars."
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will circle the moon for at least a year, obtaining measurements necessary to identify future robotic and human landing sites. It also will look for potential lunar resources and document aspects of the lunar radiation environment.
The Mars Science Laboratory rover is a mobile research platform that will explore a local region of the Martian surface as a potential habitat for past or present life. The rover will carry a suite of highly capable analytic and remote sensing instruments to investigate planetary processes that influence habitability, including the role of water.

© PhysOrg.com.

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