Российская наука и мир (дайджест) - Август 2002 г.
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Август
2002 г.
Российская наука и мир
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январь февраль март апрель май июнь июль август сентябрь октябрь ноябрь декабрь

    RosBusiness Consulting / August 06, 2002 7:40 AM EST
    Putin says defense industry restructuring should be stepped up

    Российский президент Владимир Путин встретился в Кремле с министром науки, промышленности и технологий Ильей Клебановым. Во время встречи российский лидер и министр обсуждали основные статьи проекта бюджета на 2003, а также проблемы Российской промышленности обороны.

MOSCOW, Russia, Aug 06, 2002 (RosBusinessConsulting via COMTEX) -- Russian President Vladimir Putin met today in the Kremlin with Russian Minister of Science, Industry and Technologies Ilya Klebanov. During the meeting the Russian leader and the minister discussed the major articles of the budget draft for 2003 along with the problems of the Russian defense industry. Putin was particularly interested in the situation with a debt to defense companies and the distribution of funds allocated for the defense industry development.
The Russian President emphasized the necessity to step up efforts in restructuring the defense industry in order to improve Russian military products' competitiveness on the world markets and sustain the national armed forces at a proper level. Klebanov reported to the President that the larger part of the debt to the defense industry would be repaid by the Defense Ministry this year, while the remaining part would be carried over to the next year, according to the report of the RTR television station.
The minister also reported to the Russian leader the armament program mapped out until 2010 would be implemented, since the 2003 budget draft has all possibilities for that. Klebanov stressed that according to the budget draft for 2003, RUR39.9bn (around $1.26bn) had been earmarked for the development of top-priority scientific fields. Klebanov was quoted as saying this is a considerable growth as compared to last year.

© Copyright 2002, RosBusiness Consulting, all rights reserved
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    RosBusiness Consulting / August 07, 2002 6:31 AM EST
    Industry and Science Ministry to present industrial development program
    Российское министерство промышленности и науки планирует в конце сентября представить правительству программу развития промышленности. Что касается фундаментальных исследований и научно-технического прогресса в экономике, то именно Министерство промышленности и науки распределяет фонды федерального бюджета. Для обеспечения научной поддержки основных инновационных правительственных проектов в 2003 году Министерству промышленности и науки было выделено около 63.4 миллионов долларов

MOSCOW, Russia, Aug 07, 2002 (RosBusinessConsulting via COMTEX) -- Russian Ministry of Industry and Science is planning to present at a government meeting in late September a program aimed at developing Russian industry, which is mapped out until 2010, Russian Minister of Industry, Science and Technologies Ilya Klebanov said today at a meeting of the Ministry Board that looked into the parameters of the forecast of the social and economic development of Russia until 2005.
The innovative program is currently being considered and discussed in cooperation with the Russian Ministry of Economic Development and Trade and representatives of business community. Klebanov pointed out the Ministry of Industry and Science had already considered and approved from the point of view of innovative development the concepts of the Russian car and timber industry development, and is currently considering a program aimed at developing the Russian metal industry. The Ministry of Industry and Science is the major distributor of the federal budget funds as far as fundamental research and scientific and technical progress in the economy are concerned.
To provide scientific support for the major innovative government projects in 2003, RUR2bn (around $63.4m) were allocated for the Ministry of Industry and Science. The Ministry Board also considered at its meeting an issue of developing a forecast of social and economic development of Russia for 2003 and the parameters of the forecast until 2005.

© Copyright (C) 2002, RosBusinessConsulting. All Rights Reserved

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    RosBusiness Consulting / August 30, 2002 5:11 AM EST
    PM comments on education

MOSCOW, Russia, Aug 30, 2002 (RosBusinessConsulting via COMTEX) -- Special attention is being paid to education in Russia again, Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov declared opening the first session of the organizing committee on preparations for celebrating the 250th anniversary of Moscow State University in 2005. The head of the government pointed out that the government was giving a priority to education in its programs. In particular, the volume of financing in this sphere has been increased in the 2003 draft budget. Moreover, education stands first among the priority directions of the federal budget. The Prime Minister noted that Moscow State University was "the main higher educational establishment in the country, and the history of Russian education is closely bound with it". He also stressed that currently 10,000 graduates of this establishment were working in different sectors of economy, science, culture and information. Kasyanov also mentioned that student allowances would be increased effective September 1, 2003 and allowances for scientific degrees would be increased by three times effective January 1, 2003. At the same time, the Prime Minister admitted that these funds were not enough, however, he said, the dynamics of increase in allowances would be speeded up in the future

© Copyright 2002, RosBusinessConsulting. All Rights Reserved

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    Business Wire / August 05, 2002 9:02 AM EST
    Russian and U.S. Scientists in a Joint Project Hold Their First Meeting in U.S. to Advance View Systems' Concealed Weapons Detection Technologies -- Worldwide Security Will Benefit From This Industry Partnership With the Department of Energy's Initiative for Proliferation Prevention Program

BALTIMORE, Aug 5, 2002 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- View Systems, Inc. (OTCBB:VYST - News), a world leader in concealed weapons detection and surveillance technology, today announced that on Thursday, August 1st, scientists from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory met with Russian scientists from the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics to formulate project plans aimed at advancing threat detection technologies for View Systems.
This project kickoff in Ft. Collins was the first meeting in the United States for the Russian team members, following a meeting held last month in Russia.
Organized under DOE's Initiative for Proliferation Prevention Program (IPPP) the project will develop new methods in threat detection technologies, using DOE and Russian scientists who both, during the Cold War developed nuclear and weapons of mass destruction and their delivery capability. "The DOE's selection of View Systems as the industry partner for this project holds real promise to inject new products into our future security screening and access control offerings. Rest assured, this is not a government `make work' exercise," said Paul Reep, president and chief operating officer of View Systems, Inc. "Having extensive experience working with the DOE, we know how to help this team extract all of the value from the effort."
"Imagine the technical strength of these counterparts now working together, not just from an engineering perspective, but from a planning and logistics standpoint", continued Reep. "We are exceptionally confident in the talent that has been assembled."
About The Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program (IPPP)
The Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is a cooperative program designed to enhance U.S. national security and nonproliferation objectives by cooperatively engaging former Soviet weapons scientist, engineers and technicians currently or formerly involved with weapons of mass destruction (or underlying technologies) on non-weapons related projects; as well as identifying and creating non-military commercial opportunities for former Soviet weapons of mass destruction related technologies. A population of 60,000 former key Soviet weapons scientists, engineers, and technicians have been subject to sharp government funding cutbacks at their research institutes since the demise of the Soviet Union. Since program inception in 1994, institute-by-institute and scientist-by-scientist, the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program has engaged 10,874 NIS scientists, engineers and technicians: 5,372 engaged in currently active projects (an increase of almost 2000 from FY1999).
About View Systems, Inc.
View Systems, Inc. (OTCBB:VYST), a world leader in concealed weapons detection and surveillance technology, provides a broad range of products to law enforcement professionals, military, government agencies, educational facilities, event and sport venues, commercial businesses, corporate and residential customers.
The company's flagship product is the SecureScan(TM) Concealed Weapons Detection System, which incorporates a safe, sensing technology with video and image recognition capabilities. This award-winning product uses a walk-through portal that can detect and accurately pinpoint the location, size and number of concealed weapons, such as knives, box cutters and guns, while allowing personal items like pocket change, keys, pens to pass without alarming the system, greatly improving security checkpoint screening efficiency. Headquartered at 1100 Wilso Drive, Baltimore, MD 21223, View Systems has an extensive network of distributors, licensees and strategic alliance affiliates worldwide.

© Copyright 2002, Business Wire, all rights reserved

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    Reuters / Fri Aug 16, 8:45 AM ET
    New Study Says Oil Came from Minerals Not Plants
    • By Neil Chatterjee
    Новые исследования, проведенные российскими и американскими учеными говорят о том, что нефть образовалась из минералов при экстримальных температурах и давлении

LONDON (Reuters) - Fossil fuels -- used for everything from keeping us warm to powering space rockets - could have formed from minerals instead of plant and animal remains as generally believed, say U.S. and Russian scientists.
The team of geologists, including J.F. Kenney of the Gas Resources Corporation in Texas and Vladimir Kutcherov of the Russian State University of Oil and Gas, argue that petroleum originated from minerals at extreme temperatures and pressures. They have mimicked conditions more than 100 kilometers (62 miles) below the surface by heating minerals containing carbon at around 1,500 degrees celsius and 50,000 times atmospheric pressure.
"Experiments to demonstrate the high-pressure genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons have been carried out using only 99.9 percent pure solid iron oxide, and marble...with triple distilled water," their report said.
This produced various hydrocarbons including methane, the main constituent of natural gas, and octane, the hydrocarbon molecule that is the basis for gasoline.
Other geologists say that the research, reported in the journal Nature this week, reignites a debate that is almost fossilised itself.
"It periodically comes up as an issue - it's a possibility that some hydrocarbons formed inorganically," said Lidia Lonergan, a petroleum geologist at the Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine in London.
"But it's perceived that the majority of oil reserves discovered are of organic origin," she told Reuters.
Geologists say that there is overwhelming chemical and biological evidence that fossil fuels are composed of animal and plants, or organic matter. These chemical signs are also used to find oil.
A mathematical model of the researchers' process suggests that none of the ingredients of a mineral-based fossil fuel other than methane could form at depths of less than 100 kilometers, whereas petroleum is found at much shallower levels.
The conventional view is that oil forms just a few kilometers below the surface at temperatures of 50-150 degrees celsius, a process that can be recreated in the laboratory.
Petroleum that forms inorganically at high temperatures close to the Earth's mantle layer could be forced higher up by water, which is denser than oil, before being trapped closer to the surface by sedimentary rocks.
But geologists think this could not create the huge volume of proven world oil reserves - 143 billion tonnes according to energy major BP - that are expected to last around 40 years at current rates of use.

© Copyright 2002 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved

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    PR Newswire / August 05, 2002 1:00 AM EST
    Boeing Announces New Executive Appointment in Moscow

CHICAGO, Aug 5, 2002 /PRNewswire-FirstCall via COMTEX/ -- The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA) today named Dr. Sergey Kravchenko president of Boeing - Russia/CIS.
Kravchenko will be responsible for all company business activities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and other countries within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). He will be based at the Boeing - Russia/CIS headquarters in Moscow.
Boeing has had a long-standing partnership with Russian aerospace companies for more than 10 years. Boeing has invested more than USD $1.3 billion in cooperative programs within the Russian aerospace industry, including the International Space Station, Sea Launch and the opening of new airplane routes over Russia. In addition, Boeing operates design and technology centers in Russia. "Russia/CIS is important to Boeing, and we have demonstrated our long-term commitment to the region," said Phil Condit, chairman and chief executive officer, The Boeing Company. "We have tapped some of the best aerospace specialists and aviation experts in Russia, and our partnership with the Russian aerospace industry is poised for the long-term. Sergey will focus on strengthening the Boeing presence in Russia/CIS and on pursuing growth opportunities." Russia becomes the seventh location where Boeing has appointed a country or regional executive in 2002. This selection is part of the company's plan to expand globally and develop strategies to create greater value and growth opportunities for the business. "Dr. Kravchenko's appointment is another very important step in extending the global reach and activities of Boeing in a program begun a year ago," said Tom Pickering, senior vice president for International Relations and U.S. Ambassador in Russia from 1993 to 1996. Kravchenko's appointment follows a 10-year career with Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
"Sergey has been an important part of our team and has played a key leadership role in the successful development of the Boeing Design and Technology Centers in Moscow, the Russian titanium procurement program, and the opening of polar routes over Russia for Boeing 777 and 747 aircraft," said Alan Mulally, president and chief executive officer, Boeing Commercial Airplanes. "Sergey's familiarity with the country, the culture, our business and our Boeing products and services will serve all of us well in this important region." Most recently, Kravchenko held the position of Boeing Commercial Airplanes vice president for Cooperative Programs and Business Development for Russia/CIS. Prior to joining Boeing, Kravchenko was a research professor with the Russian Academy of Sciences, teaching in Russia and worldwide. He holds two doctorate degrees, earned in 1984 and 1990 respectively, in the areas of applied mechanics and mechanical engineering from the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has published more than 30 research papers and holds more then 20 patents in various areas of engineering.
The Boeing Company is the largest aerospace company in the world and the United States' leading exporter. It is NASA's largest contractor and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft. The company's capabilities in aerospace also include rotorcraft, electronic and defense systems, missiles, rocket engines, launch vehicles, satellites, and advanced information and communication systems. The company has an extensive global reach with customers in 145 countries.

© Copyright 2002, PR Newswire, all rights reserved

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    The Professional Geographer / V.54, N.3 (August 2002) P. 379 - 391
    Directed Evolution of the Biosphere: Biogeochemical Selection or Gaia?
    • Andrei G. Lapenis
      University at Albany, SUNY

At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, a few Russian scientists proposed an in er-reated hypothesis on the coevolution of life and the environment. Because politica , linguist ic, and cultural barriers between Russia and the rest of the world existed through most of the twentieth century, many of their concepts are no we known in Western science. The synthesis of their works presented in this article leads to the concept of directed evolution of the global ecosystem. Similar to the influential Gaia hypothesis, this concept predicts evolution of the global ecosystem toward conditions generaly favorable for organisms. Unlike he Gaia hypothesis, however, the directed evolution in works of Russian scientists resuls from the superposition of “micro-forces” controlled on local and regional scales by the universal criterion of biogeochemical selection.

© Copyrigh 2002 by Association of American Geographers

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Продолжение дайджеста за АВГУСТ 2002 года (часть 2)

январь февраль март апрель май июнь июль август сентябрь октябрь ноябрь декабрь

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