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ОбложкаHeliophysics: plasma physics of the local cosmos / ed. by C.J.Schrijver, G.L.Siscoe. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. - x, 435 p., [12] p. of plates: ill. (some col.), maps. - Ref.: p.407-427. - Ind.: p.428-435. - ISBN 978-0-521-11061-7
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface	page .................................................... x

1  Prologue ..................................................... 1
   Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe
   1.1  A voyage through the local cosmos ....................... 1
   1.2  Magnetic field: a unifying force within heliophysics ... 15
   1.3  The three-volume series ................................ 19
   1.4  Additional resources ................................... 19
   1.5  Editors' note .......................................... 20
2  Introduction to heliophysics ................................ 21
   Thomas J. Bogdan
   2.1  Preamble ............................................... 21
   2.2  What is heliophysics? .................................. 22
   2.3  The language of heliophysics ........................... 24
   2.4  The creation and annihilation of magnetic field ........ 29
   2.5  Magnetic coupling ...................................... 31
   2.6  Spontaneous formation of discontinuities ............... 32
   2.7  Explosive energy conversion ............................ 34
   2.8  Generation of penetrating radiation .................... 36
   2.9  Concluding thoughts .................................... 40
3  Creation and destruction of magnetic field .................. 42
   Matthias Rempel
   3.1  Introduction - magnetic fields in the universe ......... 42
   3.2  Magnetohydrodynamics ................................... 44
   3.3  The dynamo problem ..................................... 50
   3.4  Mean-field theory ...................................... 57
   3.5  Limitations of mean-field approximation, 3D 
        simulations ............................................ 71
4  Magnetic field topology ..................................... 77
   Dana W. Longcope
   4.1  Magnetic field lines ................................... 78
   4.2  Regions of different topology .......................... 91
   4.3  Magnetic helicity ...................................... 99
5  Magnetic reconnection ...................................... 113
   Terry G. Forbes
   5.1  Preamble .............................................. 113
   5.2  Basic concepts ........................................ 113
   5.3  Reconnection in two dimensions ........................ 122
   5.4  Reconnection in three dimensions ...................... 131
   5.5  Topics for future research ............................ 137
6  Structures of the magnetic field ........................... 139
   Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe, and Carolus 
   J. Schrijver
   6.1  Preamble .............................................. 139
   6.2  Current sheets in cosmic plasmas ...................... 140
   6.3  Magnetic flux tubes ................................... 145
   6.4  Definition of a flux tube ............................. 146
   6.5  Definition of a flux rope ............................. 149
   6.6  Flux ropes at other planets ........................... 156
   6.7  Magnetic cells ........................................ 159
   6.8  Summary ............................................... 161
7  Turbulence in space plasmas ................................ 163
   Charles W. Smith
   7.1  Preamble .............................................. 163
   7.2  Introduction .......................................... 164
   7.3  What observations characterize the solar wind? ........ 167
   7.4  The Navier-Stokes equation and hydrodynamic 
        turbulence ............................................ 172
   7.5  Magnetohydrodynamic fluid turbulence .................. 176
   7.6  The spectrum of interplanetary turbulence ............. 180
   7.7  Non-Gaussianity in turbulent space plasmas ............ 190
   7.8  Turbulence in the solar corona and solar wind 
        acceleration .......................................... 191
   7.9  Interstellar turbulence ............................... 193
   7.10 Conclusion ............................................ 194
8  The solar atmosphere ....................................... 195
   Viggo H. Hansteen
   8.1  Introduction .......................................... 195
   8.2  The photosphere ....................................... 200
   8.3  The high-β chromosphere ............................... 204
   8.4  Coronal heating ....................................... 212
   8.5  Forward modeling of the outer solar atmosphere ........ 216
   8.6  The way forward ....................................... 222
9  Stellar winds and magnetic fields .......................... 225
   Viggo H. Hansteen
   9.1  A pocket history ...................................... 226
   9.2  The Parker spiral ..................................... 228
   9.3  Some solar wind properties ............................ 230
   9.4  A pocket history, continued ........................... 231
   9.5  An interlude with Alfvén waves ........................ 233
   9.6  The coronal helium abundance and the proton flux ...... 236
   9.7  The energy budget of the solar wind ................... 238
   9.8  A simple experiment ................................... 240
   9.9  Solar wind models that include the chromosphere ....... 243
   9.10 Discussion and conclusions ............................ 248
10 Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres ................... 256
   Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas
   10.1 Introduction .......................................... 256
   10.2 Definitions and classifications ....................... 257
   10.3 Interaction of solar wind with a planetary magnetic
        field ................................................. 258
   10.4 Plasma flow and magnetosphere-ionosphere 
        interaction ........................................... 265
   10.5 Plasma sources and transport processes ................ 277
   10.6 Scaling relations for magnetospheres .................. 285
11 Solar-wind-magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective ...... 295
   Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe
   11.1 Introduction .......................................... 295
   11.2 Global MHD models ..................................... 296
   11.3 The solar wind at Earth ............................... 300
   11.4 Magnetosheath modeling ................................ 302
   11.5 Forces on the magnetosphere ........................... 310
   11.6 Magnetospheric convection ............................. 317
   11.7 Energy flow in the magnetosphere ...................... 320
   11.8 Summary ............................................... 322
12 On the ionosphere and chromosphere ......................... 324
   Tim J. Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver
   12.1 Introduction .......................................... 324
   12.2 Forces and flows in the neutral atmosphere ............ 325
   12.3 Neutral-gas mixing, fractionation, and global
        circulation ........................................... 330
   12.4 Energy input and dissipation .......................... 333
   12.5 Ionization fraction ................................... 336
   12.6 Electrodynamics ....................................... 337
   12.7 Outstanding issues and science questions .............. 349
   12.8 Comparing the Sun's chromosphere and Earth's 
        ionosphere ............................................ 351
13 Comparative planetary environments ......................... 360
   Frances Bagenal
   13.1 Introduction .......................................... 360
   13.2 Jupiter ............................................... 375
   13.3 Saturn ................................................ 384
   13.4 Uranus and Neptune .................................... 388
   13.5 Mercury and Ganymede .................................. 390
   13.6 Objects without dynamos ............................... 391
   13.7 Outstanding questions ................................. 398

Appendix I: Authors and editors ............................... 399

List of illustrations ......................................... 401

List of tables ................................................ 406

References .................................................... 407

Index ......................................................... 428

The plates are to be found between pages 406 and 407.

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